The Dean’s Blog

Why Nursing Science Matters

David Vlahov

When nursing is the topic of conversation, terms such as expert clinical knowledge, authentic compassion, keen observation, organized patient management, complex care coordination and passionate advocacy flow easily.

Outside of the nursing community, however, when I talk about nursing science – nursing research – I often get blank looks and questions like: Why are nurses doing research? What distinguishes nursing science from medical research?

Given our powerful, but often unsung, impact on the quality of countless patients’ lives, it disturbs me that people don’t understand what we do. So allow me to try to explain.

Put simply, nurse scientists generate questions geared toward improving how clinicians and patients administer care and manage conditions. Such questions emerge from a unique nursing lens, which is always focused on detecting, understanding and responding to signs and symptoms that our patients experience. In a health care world moving toward – and certainly benefiting from – diagnosis and treatment that relies increasingly on sophisticated technology, it’s absolutely essential we not lose sight of the patient experience. It’s what provides health care’s critical balance.

Let’s take an example. In most intensive care units, a cacophony of alarms, whooshing and clicking sounds assaults the senses of the nurses monitoring and caring for the patients. Nurses know these alarms make it difficult for patients to sleep. We witness the distress alarms cause for family and other visitors. Worse, the constant noise, some of it unnecessary, can inure the nurse so that he or she misses an important event. Known as “alarm fatigue,” this phenomenon can make intensive care an unsettling and, at times, unsafe experience.

Nurse scientists such as UCSF’s Barbara Drew have insisted that we can engineer a safer nursing care environment. She and newly recruited faculty member and bioengineer Xiao Hu are collecting millions of data points and deriving algorithms so alarms can better predict clinical events. If Drew and Hu’s early results are validated, it will help some remarkable technology achieve its original purpose of providing precisely targeted advanced warning without all the unnecessary noise.

The point is that it is nurse scientists whose experience positions them to raise such questions, assemble the team to address the need, put methods together to gather the data and bring their lens to an analysis that is most likely to uncover the right answers for both nurses and patients.

Similarly, consider symptom assessment and management, something nurses have been studying for decades – and something that has a deep and lasting effect on patients. Some of the most impressive work in this area has been on the pain, nausea and fatigue associated with cancer and chemotherapy. During the past decade, nurse scientist Chris Miaskowski and geneticist Brad Aouizerat from our faculty have gone beyond measuring self-reported symptoms to uncover genetic markers for pain associated with cancer chemotherapy. The hope is that adding genetic information to data from self-reports and physical signs can help us improve how we anticipate and effectively manage pain. While colleagues in other fields study genetic markers and mechanisms for diagnosis and treatment, nursing science focuses on symptoms because patient experience tells us that pain associated with cancer chemotherapy remains an unmet challenge.

One more example: At the University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing, Mary Naylor has clearly defined best practices for transitional care from hospitals to community. Such work is especially important today, as the health care reform movement has identified transitional care as an essential component in people maintaining and improving their health after a hospital stay. We are delighted to have Mary Naylor join us this year as a Presidential Chair, so we can learn from her work and generate our own.

There are, of course, thousands of other examples, both big and small, where nurse scientists’ unique lens helps build the science that is improving both individual and population health. So at a time when everyone in health care is trying to achieve the elusive balance between high-tech and high-touch care, it is high time for people to fully recognize nurse scientists’ critical contribution to the discussion.

Comments

Examples of where nursing research is done/needed, as addressed in this article, are very much appreciated. In the past, I thought there was too little research done in the areas where nurses dominate in terms of the time spent in direct contact serving clients. It was my impression that "nurse research" in the past took on too much of what was more directly related to the role of other health professionals, especially doctors. Your last paragraph says it all. And your initial explanation should make it clearer to those outside the profession, those who give you those "blank looks," a better understanding of what it is and how important it is in furthering the objectives of the profession of nursing. Before I drop dead (now 82 years old), while no longer directly connected to the practice, I hope to be able to share experiences in writing that may inspire research in the field of diminishing if not eliminating the FEAR, at any age, of the dying process and death itself. Nora Maliepaard-Martinis, '58.

Getting the Most from Nursing Research

David Vlahov

This month, a Science of Caring article highlights research that provides important insights into the health needs of older adults living alone. Among the story’s unspoken questions is this one: How does a school of nursing decide where to focus its research efforts?

This is a more complex challenge than one might expect, as nursing research covers a wide range of topics in its efforts to improve patient care and community health, as well as shape health policy. At UC San Francisco School of Nursing, we are in the process of defining criteria that will help shape and sharpen our research themes moving forward.

This rigorous process includes consideration not just of demographic trends and public health priorities, but also of trends in science, health care delivery, health professions, human capital and resources. As we sharpen our focus, we also build in safeguards to ensure the criteria are not exclusionary. Our university has a culture of “letting a thousand flowers bloom,” and we want our faculty to follow both their hearts and their minds. That said, the criteria do provide a framework to guide our discussion as we develop a strategic plan for the School.

Aging emerged here early as a research theme. With Wendy Max and Julene Johnson from the Institute for Health & Aging and Chris Miaskowski and Meg Wallhagen from the Department of Physiological Nursing leading the way, here’s how the framework guided our interest in aging:

  • Demographic trends indicate that the percentage of the US population aged 65 and older will increase from 13 percent in 2010 to 19 percent in 2030. Worldwide, the percentage of people aged 65 or older is expected to grow from 8 percent in 2010 to 16 percent in 2050.
  • In terms of public health priorities, we can expect an increase in chronic diseases such as cancer, diabetes and dementia. The number of people age 65 and older with Alzheimer’s disease could be as high as 13.8 million by 2050, with the cost to the nation of Alzheimer’s and other dementias rising to $1.1 trillion.
  • From a care perspective, older adults have expressed a desire for independence, with satisfactory physical and cognitive functioning, in their later years. Achieving this goal requires knowledge about many factors that surround healthy aging, including self-care, a responsive system of health care, and housing and transportation design.
  • From a health professions perspective, the number of physicians entering and practicing geriatric medicine is small and declining. Nursing has and can continue to fill the gap; research plays a role in optimizing the care that our nurses can provide.
  • Trends in the conduct of science include interdisciplinary teams. For example, we have geriatric research expertise in three separate departments; a fabulous relationship with the UCSF Division of Geriatrics in the Department of Medicine; and strong partnerships with other medical centers, community agencies and community organizations, including a strong portfolio of active research programs and education for emerging investigators and leaders.

We believe the thoughtful development of research themes not only helps us achieve a critical mass of the finest research talent, but also helps us recruit world-class faculty and attract the best and brightest students. We are currently working toward other research themes – which we will share with you at a later time – that will enable us to further leverage our collaborations and achieve synergies in research, education and service both within UCSF and with our sister nursing schools around the world.

 

Accepting and Understanding the Value of Gratitude

David Vlahov

Many years ago, while nursing in a coronary care unit, I had a patient who ran a kosher deli. Each day, his family would arrive with a heaping tray of pastrami and corned beef, the best deli treats I’d ever had. At first, I was uncomfortable with the family’s gifts; I was just doing my job. Eventually, though, I recognized both the family’s sincerity and the hurt I was inflicting by not accepting their gift. Their look of happiness when I did accept has always stayed with me.

Another time, at a busy mall, a middle-aged man approached me from a mass of shoppers and squinted intently at me. He seemed familiar, but I couldn’t place him. Then his squint evolved into elation. He waved his wife over, pointed at me and said in a possessive tone that I was his nurse. He spoke of being admitted to the coronary care unit, wondering if he would survive. After I wheeled him on a stretcher and transferred him into bed, I told him, “You got yourself in here. We’re going to get you out.” He said that he knew then he was in good hands. Yet once more I was embarrassed by the attention for merely doing my job. There was an awkward silence, and looking back, I realize I stifled his desire to give thanks.

This is a common experience for many nurses. Perhaps we take what we do for granted and find it difficult to accept our patients’ gratitude. Yet the older I get, the more I understand how important it is not just to accept their appreciation, but to use it as a way to build on the things we do well, just as constructive criticism is a way to correct our deficiencies. These situations are, in fact, opportunities to deepen our connections and grow as nurses – to speak with our patients and former patients about just how meaningful their gratitude can be.

And when the gratitude comes in the form of donations to our education, it is extraordinarily meaningful and valuable. After all, data show that better-educated nurses lead to better clinical outcomes – and schools of nursing are the only way to produce the teachers and leaders that assure quality nursing education across the country.

Now is an especially important time to support nursing education. The impending nursing shortage will be hard to address because we don’t have enough doctorally prepared teachers. The debt many who might seek such preparation would incur is a significant disincentive – and the means to get help with costs are shrinking. Government support has declined. Hospitals and clinics have tighter budgets, so they find it harder to support their nurses’ continuing education.

Thus, rather than shuffle uncomfortably when we are offered thanks, now is the time to encourage our grateful patients to support nursing education, so we can produce the next generation of highly skilled nurses, leaders and educators. That type of gratitude delivers huge returns for patients, families and society.

Launching Assistant Professors

David Vlahov

While attending a recent meeting of nursing faculty leaders from across the country, a small group of us from research-intensive schools met informally to compare notes. One of the topics was protected time for junior faculty on the tenure track: how much to provide and for how long to new assistant professors, and senior faculty’s expectations about how to accommodate such time.

There was no single shared vision across schools, but for me it is impossible to discuss this idea of protected time without looking at its role in an entire career arc.

For tenure-track junior faculty in research-intensive universities, progression through the academic ranks typically demands active research that advances knowledge, excellence in teaching and advising, and service to the academic institution, the profession and the community. Institutions vary in the proportion of effort devoted to each part of the academic mission, as well as the metric for productivity within each part, but many provide protected research time for the first year. The assumption is that new faculty members need time to become oriented to the culture of the institution and academia, write manuscripts that provide a foundation for a program of research and prepare and submit grant proposals that will fund work that advances knowledge.

The ideal is to recruit new faculty members who are already building on their dissertation and postdoctoral research topic to establish themselves as credible candidates to steward funding that produces new knowledge. Yet even for an ideal new faculty member, solid funding for research typically takes at least one and often two or three years to arrive, so providing time – and mentoring – to get proposals started is essential.

Doctoral programs prepare students in scholarship, but in many cases, doctoral work is a more solitary experience. Successful science involves collaborations across disciplines, so protected time does not mean isolated time. New faculty need to learn how to complete academic work in a more complex setting, one with a longer list of expectations and shorter deadlines. In this context, mentors are crucial resources who encourage, guide and connect new faculty members to people and programs that stimulate energy, creativity and productivity.

Protected time also implies a responsibility to the institution beyond one’s own research track – a time to learn to teach with an experienced professor and become engaged in the academic community. Senior faculty mentor on how to manage all of these challenges to succeed in the academic community.

The end of this initial period and promotion to associate professor is often an enormous relief. Yet unless the protected time and mentoring have been employed wisely, this next phase can also come as a shock. The workload in research, teaching and service actually increases. The metric for promotion to full professor is not only productivity in each area, but also evidence of leadership that includes mentoring new faculty, taking on more students and serving on committees that plan the future of the school.

Full professorship comes with even more responsibility. The expectation is to become a role model and transmitter for the culture of academia at one’s institution.

While this discussion is about faculty in the tenure track, the needs are the same for the clinical faculty – growing junior faculty to become the leaders for tomorrow.

We need to carefully manage our investment of protected research time and mentoring for new faculty. This is not solely a period for them to write and submit manuscripts and grants. It is also a support system that enables these talented individuals to grow into full citizens and leaders in the academic community – ones who attract high-caliber colleagues, bright students and the resources needed to tackle the questions that will lead to improved science.

Comments

Thank you for this thoughtful commentary on the growth and development, and expectations for faculty. I appreciate the attention to the multiple demands for faculty and on how support/mentoring is an important key to career advancement. Being in the clinical faculty series, there has been relatively little attention to the expectations and demands for faculty in this series. So, I am glad that clinical faculty were mentioned in this commentary. It would be great to have a conversation around "protected time" for new clinical faculty (assistant professors). Time is needed for developing the skills needed to be an exceptional clinical educator and scholar. It is also needed for enhancing academic leadership skills that assure the advancement of our clinical programs and making important contributions to health-related policies and more. I would be happy to enagage in such conversations. JoAnne M. Saxe, DNP, ANP-BC, Director, Adult-Gerontology Primary Care Nurse Practitioner Program
very insightful and appreciated, Dean Vlahov. We all struggle with this challenge, and find it is easier to conceptually support effective mentoring than it is to follow through in practice. Your observations on post-tenure let down are particularly astute. Dick Culbertson, Ph.D. '93; Dean, LSU School of Public Health; New Orleans, LA.
Excellent topic. I would appreciate learning from you what other research intensive universities are doing to launch research and clinical professors.
Your request is good and one that may best be answered by leaders in other Schools/Universities. I'm glad to have this blog serve as a forum for sharing information and building the conversation.

NPs, Expanded Scope and the Need for Team-Based Health Care

David Vlahov

My most recent blog post – which commented on an Academic Medicine article titled “Primary Care Workforce Shortages and Career Recommendations from Practicing Clinicians” – touched a nerve with some readers. People have responded in a number of ways. Some felt that the blog was “out of touch” and “tone-deaf” to the issues of concern for primary care nurse practitioners (PCNPs), in essence abandoning our shared commitment to the preparation, profession and position of nurse practitioners.

Nothing could be further from the truth! To be clear, in my earlier blog posts (e.g., “Reducing the Impact of the Doctor Shortage in a Year,” from July 2014), published articles (e.g., “Nurse Practitioners: Implementing the Affordable Care Act,” in San Francisco Medicine, April 2013) and numerous national presentations, I have consistently made the case for PCNPs being able to practice to the full extent of their education and license. The recent blog post is most definitely not a departure from that position.

The Institute of Medicine’s 2010 report on The Future of Nursing framed the future in the context of health care reform. In essence, the country needs a larger, stronger and more integrated health care workforce to meet the nation’s health care needs. To meet the real and growing challenge of providing quality care, the IOM stressed the development of educational standards for practice; the education of doctorally prepared nurses for leadership, education and research; and the need to address the scope of practice whereby nurses can fully practice to the level of their education.

In California, we have had some disappointment in making progress toward these goals. In 2013, Senate Bill 491, which would have allowed nurse practitioners to operate without physician supervision at certain medical facilities, did not pass. Among others, I was asked to and did provide research in support of independent practice. In addition to summarizing the research base that has found nurse practitioners provide high-quality and safe care, with outcomes and patient satisfaction comparable to primary care physicians, I also presented the case that it is much more cost-effective to train nurse practitioners and that they graduate with much lower debt compared to physicians. I argued for the importance of having expanded practice restrictions eased as a means to expand the health care workforce to meet the increasing needs associated with health care reform. The early version of this bill was discussed with the deans of all the UC schools of nursing, who similarly expressed support. Additionally, a letter in support of the bill came from the University of California, Office of the President.

There can be no doubt of where I stand on the issue of independent practice for nurse practitioners. And we will continue to fight for this becoming a reality in California as it already has in some states. Hopefully, the 2013 bill will be reintroduced and will pass in the next legislative session.

All of that said, a larger workforce – even one enhanced by making full use of NPs’ unique skill set – is not enough. Coordinated, team-based care is health care’s future. Thus, we need to do better in terms of training together, working together and supporting each other. Listening to and understanding the views and concerns of our professional colleagues moves us closer to these important goals.

David Vlahov, RN, PhD, FAAN

 

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